History of European costumes

Accessories Clothes cosmetic Dress Fashion women X-XI History of European costumes Jewelry Men's dress fashion X-XI Shoe

 
Valentine Vu Anh Ho Nguyen / Fashion Lecturer / Raffles International
College, HCMC  

Roman Empire
 
Historical background
 
The capital of the Roman Empire was Constantinople, a Greek city chosen by the Roman emperor Constantine in 330 to become the capital of the eastern part of the Roman Empire. Located in the Black Sea, this city and neighboring lands dominate both the shipping and land trade between west and central Asia, Russia, and the Far East. At the same time, the city was also protected by the Balkan mountains from the invaders, who overran Rome and the Italian peninsula.

Located at the intersection of East and West, this city and the empire that made it the capital of East West rich cultural and artistic convergence. On the costumes, one can see this reflected through the gradual evolution of Roman style with the increasing spatial elements of the East.

During the course of history, the Roman Empire continued to sink in the war with a series of enemies: Persia, Arabia, Bulgaria, Avars, Turkey Seljuk and finally Ottoman Turkey. Even the Crusaders became enemies of this empire

The Roman Empire was narrowed only slightly over a Balkan state. The artistic and cultural life of the city was revived, but the danger of Turkish invasion remained there. Finally, in 1453, Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and completely destroyed the empire.

Fabric production technology
 
The Romans knew how to weave beautiful cloths. From the 4th to 6th centuries, linen and wool fabrics were extremely popular. The production of silk remains the secret that was first held by the Chinese, then by Koreans and Japanese. Gradually knowledge of silk production began to spread to the West. The merchants brought silk and possibly raw silk to Greece and Rome before the first century BC, but the production of silk was still very limited. Roman historians suggest that in the sixth century two monks brought the secrets of silkworm farming to the Roman emperor. Not only did they learn how to make silkworm eggs, grow silkworm silkworms, but also smuggled many silkworm eggs from China into an empty bamboo tube.

From this point of time until the 9th century, when the Greeks in Sicily also began to produce silk, the Romans produced silk exclusively for the entire western part of the world. The Roman emperor was well aware of taking advantage of this monopoly by taking a very high price, so only the richest people were able to afford the fabric. Weavers in Rome are especially hungry. The patterns used in this type of brocade are usually original Persian motifs

Feng Shui Monk Mode.
 
Feudalism developed due to the need to be protected when the Carolingian Empire collapsed under the attack of the Vikings, Magyars and Saracens. Central government disappears; Law and order are no longer. Safety is only found in the military. Much like the leaders of the German tribes who gathered their warriors in combat teams, the leaders gathered around them as warriors. Then a new initiative, the horse pedal, revolutionized the war by combining the power of humans and animals to create warriors on horseback with swords and spears. These warriors became steel warriors on horseback. Knights, master warriors, need years of practice to control horses and weapons. This time of training starts when they are young and not cheap at all

Knights are also a part of a lord. The word "vassal" comes from Celtic, meaning "servant". These servants are like warriors in the battle of the German army, who swear allegiance to their commanders. To give loyalty to his subordinates, the lord would give them land, called the manor, to pay for what they offered to the army. Knights will live in their manor when they no longer participate in combat.

In theory, the feudal emperor was a supreme lord and master of all the land in his territory. His courtiers are very loyal, but if he is challenged by an independent and powerful subordinate, the king can only call his other minions to gather his troops to help. the aristocratic rebellion back in discipline.Feudal lords are not only against the aggressive aggressors, but also against other feudal lords.

 

Anglo-Saxon and Norman Britain
 
After the Roman legions withdrew from northeastern Germany, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded England in the fifth century, leading the Orthodox, Celts, West to Wales, Devon. , Cornwall and northern Scotland. Anglo-Saxon settlers, married in the family and converted to Christianity, and established the 7 Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In the 9th century, the Anglo-Saxons were invaded by the Danes (Vikings), who plundered and seized territory. The Anglo-Saxon king, Alfred the Great (871-899), conquered the Danes, and merged them with his dynasty under a king. When the line of King Alfred died in 1066, William the Conqueror, Count of Normandy, regained the throne. He encroached over Britain and destroyed Anglo-Saxon opponents seeking to win the throne in the Battle of Hastings. William I established a feudal state system that was organized and concentrated much better in Europe. In the reign of Henry II (1154-1189), one of England's greatest kings, whose mother was the grandchild of William I and whose father was a member of the Plantagenet family, demanded compensation from the French. Great from France. These claims are based on the fact that William the Conqueror once ruled Normandy and Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine, who inherited a large area in the North West of France. Many years later, France and Britain fought for this claim. The culmination of the Battle of Five Years (1337 - 1453), ended with the expulsion of the French from a position in Calais. The Plantagenet family ruled England until 1399.

Men's dress fashion X-XI

Undergarments include a shirt worn in and thighs. Costumes that eventually evolved into today's modern-day men's shirts come from undergarments. Wear on the skin, this type of costume is almost not seen or only partially seen. Only after the nineteenth century did the new shirt be considered lingerie.
 
Undergarments, sometimes called chemises, are linen shorts. Braids, also known as braies, are breeches in the knee but are sewn wide, knotted at the waist. The length varies, from the knee to the ankle, almost covering the legs.

-Men wear two tunic shirts, one on the outside and one on the other. Often, both shirts are of equal length although sometimes the inside is usually slightly longer than a shirt to reveal the outer garment. If the outer shirt has a shorter length, it usually has a fitted sleeve that fits snugly. Sometimes, the sleeves are long over the hand and are rolled up over the wrists. If the outer garment is longer, they also have a sleeveless fit, or (more commonly) have wide sleeves to reveal the sleeve of the tunic inside.

-Tunic usually have round neck or square neck. This type of dress is usually worn at the waist. They are made of linen and wool. The poor mostly wear wool. The silk was imported by extremely wealthy people. Class division is expressed in the length and manner of tunic decoration. Tunic outside of the rich are usually decorated with silk embroideries in the neck, sleeves and crosses. Noblemen and clergy often wear long-sleeved dresses at ceremonial occasions. Hunters and soldiers from all walks of life often wear short tunic shorts.

-Men's mantles can be worn open or closed. The open gowns are sewn with a piece of cloth on either side of the shoulders, or the cloak is a long piece of cloth with an incision that can be pulled over. Cloaks in the 10th century were usually square, semicircular robes began to appear in the 11th century. Men who held important political or religious positions were usually dressed in robes People like the gown of the Greeks on occasions.

-Young men often shave smooth, while middle-aged people have beard. The hair is split in the middle, to fall naturally to the sides of the face, long to the nape or over whether straight or wavy hair.

-Except for the war helmets, hoods and bonnet-themed caps, the Phrygian style is the most popular hat. Hats with round and small rounded beads appear in the 11th century Jewish community in paintings. These hats, as well as bearded hair, appear to be part of traditional clothing worn voluntarily by the Jews. These hats may originate from conical hats worn by non-Muslims in Muslim countries and introduced into Europe through the Spanish or Roman Empire.

-To cover the legs, men usually wear long bottomless pants or long socks. Socks are made of textile material, cut and sewed to the feet, high to the knee or to the groin. Legs (also called ghee) are made of removable wool and are tightly wrapped around the toes of the knee and are worn with long or loose socks. Socks are shorter than long socks, usually light in color. Some types of socks on the toes can be worn on the back of a pair of socks, or on long socks or on leggings.
 
-Tube shoes can be short to ankles or up, to half calf and usually decorated. Middle-aged middle-aged jackets usually do not have high soles. The shoes are usually pointed. The shoes are often hugging and high up to the ankles, with leather or fabric strands to tighten when necessary.

Fashion women X-XI

-Men's and women's fashion had a few different places throughout the 10th and 11th centuries. Women wore linen clothing that was comfortable and very close to the skin, called "chemise" in France, though Longer cut but these shirts are very similar to men's shirt.
 
Outside this shirt, women in long tunic hit the floor with a sleeveless shirt and embroidery in the neck, crossed lines and sleeves. In the end, they wore long-sleeved tunic shirts with wide sleeves to reveal the tunic inside. The top tunic shirt is usually pulled up and lurched at the waist. A few tunic wears in the dress are decorated border at wrist and cross line.

-When going out, women often wear closed and closed gowns. Some of the robes are also sewn in a double jersey lined with contrasting colors. Winter gowns can be lined with fur.
 
Young girls often leave their hair unattached. Married women and older women often cover their hair with nets, pulling their faces around the chin; Or can open, drop the two sides of the face and spread to the middle of the chest. The rich will wear silk or linen; The lower classes use cheaper linen or wool.

-Women knee-length socks. Women's shoes are similar to men. Women also wear openings with ribbons wrapped around their ankles, similar to those of monks. Clogs are tall blocks of wood that help keep shoes away from water, mud and snow, especially for leather shoes.
 
There is little jewelry found in the paintings and sculptures of this period, the records show that wealthy women wore gold ribbons and neck or pearls, bracelets, rings and earrings. The jeweled harnesses (often called girdles) also occasionally appear in painting.

FIRST CENTURY INTERIOR CENTURY XII

Political, economic and social events had direct and indirect effects on the fashion sense of the period. The abundance of raw materials in the production of clothing, the manner in which sociopaths dress in society, and the practical needs that clothing must fulfill, each one of which plays an important role. in the development of costumes.

RESTAURANTS FOR MEN AND WOMEN IN THE XII CENTURY

-At least some of the XII fashion styles are seen as far removed from traditional costumes. There are three types of elegant attire in this period shown in painting. The first type is a tunic that hugs a bit more than the last century. Men and women of lower grades wear these tunic shirts. The second type is a slim fit suit, called bliaut blouses. The third type is the hugging outfit with the upper part connected to the leg of the skirt, called the bliaut gironé.

-The costumes in the early stages are usually slick, under the arm and tied with a thread, not buttons as now. Blistered suits are made to be hugged by cutting into curves in the ribs, close to the upper body. The gores are inserted into the skirt to make the skirt wider.

-Bliaut gironé is more complex in the cut-off technique than in the previous period, with the pant leg of which was assembled into the upper body. And these costumes are also cut and laced on one side. The link between the skirt and the top is usually below the natural waist. The skirt and upper garment are sewn together and a sloping cloth is usually inserted to allow the hip to fit. Ramps are often hidden by decorative fabric. However, there is no evidence that the sleeve is attached to the body. Bliaut gironé, costumes tailored to the body are limited to men and women of the upper class. They are made from expensive silk such as satin or velvet, embroidered with gold thread, and decorated with precious stones.

-Another distinctive feature of the blu-ray costume illustrates the dramatic changes in the look of humility: the way it is cut and tied. Both blouses and bras are fitted by threading. These lace knots occasionally slip out and expose the bare skin inside.

COMPONENTS OF THE NEXT PAGE OF XII

People wear mantle when they go out, there is no big change in traditional dress.
 
As mentioned above, upper class men wear blisters. Tunic wears on the outside of the tunics worn on the inside continue to be the main dress for most men, although in some cases the tunic inside is not exposed outside, which leads to misperception. Men only wear a tunic shirt. The sleeve has many forms, the main types are:
 
- Sleeveless sleeves adorned with decorative motifs and flip-flops
- Long sleeves to elbows
- The outside tunic reveals the sleeveless shirt of the tunic inside
- The sleeves are hugged at the top and broadly below the bell

Hair and jewelry for hair

Most men have beard and mustache. The length of the hair is very small, but it is not too long. The monks condemned the long hair and put beard into each small, pointed crown. These people are considered non-masculine.
 
When out, men wear hooded hats or small round hats with knobs on the top. The nipple, which has a string under the chin and resembles a baby's hat today, began to be used in the late part of this century.

Shoe
 
Footwear and boots are the same as in the last century. Among the innovations that irritated the ethics were long, pointed shoes that were very popular among upper-class men.

WOMEN'S PARTICULARS IN THE CENTURY XII

 

Outerwear

-The women's blu-ray blouse and tunic shirts are even longer and more liberal in cut lines than men's. Some illustrations show that the ends of the sleeves of the hug will be long sleeves to the floor. If you wear both tunic inside and outside tunic, the sleeves inside are usually long and fit while the outer sleeve has a flared collar, or wide sleeves with decorative ribbons, or narrow upper arm and gradually spread out under the bell shape.

-Chainse is a different type of outfit for upper-class women. They are made of laundry materials such as linen, which are long and pliable. There are a lot of misunderstandings between the shirt and the chemise. However, it was found that the shirtsee was worn over the chemise and was completely separate. A chain-shirt does not need to be worn with a tunic outside, like a "dress shirt" and looks particularly favored by the end of the 12th century. Dry and lightweight.

-French people older wear coats, since this was the British borrowed to name shirt "Mantle" (cloaks), this shirt is a kind of cloak worn out women stories upper class Robe old elite are often long, sleeveless, cut front and back tied with long ribbons with clasp both sides the front buttoning.

-Some of the designs are extremely luxurious. Some are described as made of roses and white cloth from India, which are woven or embroidered with petals and flowers, cut into one piece, and lined with fragrant furs. They have dark blue and yellow contours on their shoulders, with two gemstones on their shoulders.
 
Some gowns are trimmed or decorated with feathers. Fur coats and fur coats are common names for a number of fur-trimmed outfits, including jackets, tunic wear, and tunic wear.

Hair and jewelry for hair
 
Women in the highest grades usually leave their hair in two long ponytails and then wrap them on either side of their face. These braids are sometimes close to the ground, and contemporary records indicate that wigs are also often added to make up the desired length and are considered fashionable. Decorative ribbons can be braided or at the end of a pigtail to hold jewelery hooks. Next is a large veil covered, but people can still see the hair.

-Most women cover their hair completely and wear a veil so that they only leave their face. New innovations in the field of hairdo include barbettes, fillets and wimple hats. The Barbette is a linen band that is carried around one side of the temple, down the chin and then onto the other. Barbette often goes with the fillet. The fillet is a linen ribbon, which looks like a crown, where the veil covers. Wimple is a good linen or silk wrapped from head to neck, the middle is placed on the chin and each head is hidden behind the ear or behind the temples. A wimple usually comes with a veil. Not to be favored by young women after the Middle Ages, the wimple became part of the costumes of Catholic sisters in Rome and continued to be used until the 1960s.

Early Middle Ages XIII

Fabric production
 
A major revolution in the organization of fabric manufacturers took place. In the early days of the Middle Ages, women who worked in the home or at home were the ones who created most of the fabric. Since the year 1300, men's textile work was done by women, and women only prepared yarn and spinning. Dye and paste are specially hand-made and are made outside the house. In studies of the work of women in the early part of the Middle Ages, it was argued that the decline in slave numbers and the shift of population from rural to urban centers was one of the reasons. due to these changes. As a result, women's workshops have disappeared and fabric production has been carried out in households. Men, former peasants, had to find jobs in urban centers, and get jobs that women previously did.

-These developments, along with the changes in science and technology, the birth of steam power plants have provided the energy for woolwear dating from the 10th century. Until the 12th century, the frame Horizontal looms have allowed the weavers to sit, not stand as vertical looms before. Horizontal looms have pedal legs to move the warp and add a cavity, called a shuttle, to control the weft.
Up until the 12th century, European craftsmen established several clothing manufacturing centers for export. Trade guilds were first established in the 11th century, not by workers but by traders who wanted to prevent the importation of competing goods. From the 12th century, craftsmen began to form their own guilds. Just learning to work in a guild, a young man can become an apprentice craftsman, these guilds can regulate the number of artisans and set quality standards, prices , and regulate working conditions.

-Cloth business guilds are allowed to hire their wives and daughters to spin yarn and weave. The widows of the members can inherit the business of the late husband and become members of the association. However, wages for women are always lower than for men.
 
Wool is a special yarn in the European textile business. Wool in England was considered the best wool at the time. There is a lot of wool imported from England into Flanders, where skilled weavers make high quality fabrics. These fabric traders do not limit the amount of wool clothing. Linen is made in Europe and is used for making household items and clothes. Silk production, since the mid-1200s, has become the major industry of Italy, Sicily and Spain. Cotton, originally from India, was introduced by the Moroccan to Spain.

Costumes for XIII century men

-Throughout the 13th century, men used to wear costumes that were similar to the costumes described in the previous edition; However, the name of the costumes in this period has little change. In short, a man wears knee-length pants or shorter pants and linen shirts. Wearing a cote shirt and a cote shirt, the shirt is a surcote shirt. During the cold season or to protect the body when going out, they will wear another coat, something like a cloak that can be cut to fit or fit a little wider.

-Simplicity in dress for mandarins was emphasized in Louis IX's time. Louis, an extremely religious man, was the only king of France to be canonized by the Catholic Church. During his reign, the tunic became more casual and luxury was not encouraged.

Costume
 
-Upper-class men wear long coats, while workers wear shorter coats. There are two types of sleeves described as the most common. One is the long sleeves and hugging. The rest is the type of sleeves are very bulging under the arms, narrow and then hug close to the wrist.

-The description of the surcote shirt (outerwear shirt) also shows many points in cropping. Some people wear sleeveless shirts with round or horizontal neck and wide sleeves, and the body is assembled underneath the wide armpit. The other sleeveless shirt has elbows or elbows or a long sleeved shirt and blisters at the top and narrows towards the wrist. Long surcots often have a line up to the waist so that the wearer can easily ride on a horse or move easily. Even short surcote and cote dresses that do not wear a surcote occasionally have the same appearance in the front.

-The difference between a surcote shirt and sleeveless dresses is very blurry. People do not wear surcote overcoat these types of outerwear. The main outfit of the street outfit is a gown and cloak to open or seal. The topcoat is worn over the shoulder and crossed the front of the body with a ribbon that symbolizes the upper class.
 
Garnache is a kind of gown with wide sleeves. Often lined and trimmed with fur, it is open on both sides, under the arm.

-The original tabard was a short, wide, short sleeved or sleeveless dress worn by lowly priests and men. In some cases, they are tied at the waist under the arm a little by guttering or by a wire cloth. In the following centuries, this type of costume became part of the army uniform or the costume of the courtiers in noble families. The decorative patterns used for the tabard will indicate who the owner is wearing.
A slit or fitch, the kind of costume that modern eyes now consider to be like panties, is made out of baggy clothes so that the wearer can put their hands in their shirts. It's cold or for a purse hanging in the waist of a shirt inside.

Hair and jewelry for hair
The length of the hair is moderate and the hair is centered. Young men have shorter hair than older people. If they have a beard they are also very short. Many men do not wear beards because of the presence of military helmets that cover their faces completely. This is very inconvenient to have a beard.
 
Jewelry for the most important hair is a hat and a hood. Hooded hats do not come with a cloak anymore. By the end of the 13th century, the hats were even closer to the head, and they were usually sewn with a long canvas draped behind their backs. The French call them cornette, and the English call it liripipe.

Costumes for XIII century women
 
Except for women not wearing shorts, other types of clothing in their wardrobe are similar to men's attire: inner jackets, cote jackets, surcot jackets, and street wear. mittens or sleeveless robes.
 
Costume
 
The cote also has a sleeveless shirt and long sleeve over the arm. The surcote is also hand or not. If there is a hand, it is only long to the middle of the elbow or wrist and usually very broad and round. Sleeveless surcote is often cut with wide arms so that you can see the cote shirt inside.

The full-bodied costumes worn during the St. Louis era were replaced by more elaborate costumes until the end of the 13th century. In the warm summer months, some women wearing a surcote shirt outside the shirt inside, but this is very risky and is considered a sign of corrupt behavior. Many women wore a cote (tunic inside) tightly to emphasize their curves under the wide sleeves of the surcote shirt.
 
Unclassified women's jackets are often worn indoors or outdoors. Gowns like 11th and 12th century gowns continue to be used, some with hoods for colder winter.

Hair and jewelry for hair
 
Young women continue to head while mature women wear headscarves. Long hair (like the 12th century) is no longer visible. The veil and hairdo cover the entire hair. Barbettes, fillets, and wimples continue to exist, although they are sometimes overlapped by the veil of the veil.
 
Shoe
There have been no major changes in shoe styles over the last century.

Accessories for men and women thirteenth century

-Accessories range from jewelery, wallets, purses, to other items used to store valuables and gloves.
 
During the thirteenth century, only nobility and clergy wore gloves. The princess sometimes wears gloves with jewelery. Near the end of the 13th century, gloves appeared to be more popular for both men and women. Some wear long gloves to the elbow, others wear long gloves to the wrists. Some women wear linen gloves to protect their hands from the sun.
Bags and purses are worn on the waist (sometimes worn on the shoulder), or worn under the outer garment and usually worn around the open or split of the shirt.

Jewelry
 
Little in the picture or in the statue, but jewelry is described in much literature. Most important jewelry items are rings, belts, buckles to hold ribbons on the shirt, and fermail or affiche pins used to tie the tunic out, the bliaut shirt, or the surcote.
 
cosmetic
 
After the Crusades, fragrances and ointments imported from the Middle East are commonly used. British women or noblemen used lipstick in the 12th century. If they were imported into the United Kingdom for use, the aristocracy still had close ties to France and its colonies. You can be sure that it is also used in other continents. Women also use hair dye and face cream.

Apparel in the army
 
-The armor can be divided according to their structure: (1) Soft armor, made of cotton padding or leather, these armor may be penetrated by pointed objects; (2) the second type is made of interlocking metal rings, and (3) are metal discs, hard leather jackets and whale bones, or buffalo horns.

-By the middle of the 12th century, men began wearing surcot shirts outside their armor. This habit may have originated during the Crusades in order to protect the armor from the high temperatures of the Mediterranean sun, a mimicry of Islamic militants. During this time, soldiers often wear surcotts that are attached to the badge to determine which troops they are in, which is necessary when the entire face is covered by the helmet.

-In the 12th and 13th centuries, armor consisted of long-sleeved, short-sleeved coats and socks. The long sleeved shirt over the hand forms a type of glove. The entire costume is about 12-15kg and is worn outside the cotton shirt. At the beginning of the 13th century, a helmet began to appear. This hat can be compared to the current cones of the welder, except that it is sealed in the back, leaving only the eyes and nose to breathe, just like the opposite of a big barrel. This hat is covered with another cotton padding to protect the head from the edges of the helmet, this helmet is only worn while fighting because it is too inconvenient for the team every day. During the second half of the 13th century, a bunch of feathers or feathers were added to the top of the helmets so people could know it was a knight.

THE MIDDLE TIME: Costumes of the fourteenth century man

-In the first 40 years of the 14th century, men's fashion continued like that of centuries past. There are also shirts and shorts for underwear and cote wear in surcot. By about 1340, fashion

For men to change significantly. Short skirts, often part of the costumes of the peasants, became fashionable for men of all walks of life. There are many new types of costumes that have become popular, along with the modification of the previous costumes.

Clothes

-Pourpoint clothing is also known as doublet or gipon. These sleeveless sleeveless dresses with pre-padded outfits are military outfits. Around the year 1340, men began wearing casual pourpoints, along with long socks. Dressed on the outside of the shirt and tailored to fit, the pourpoint is fitted along the front of the body with lace or buttons. The springs are sewn into the underpants of the pourpoint dress underneath the waist, allowing the socks to be sewn onto the pourpoint rather than the shorts, which are worn under long socks.

-Pourpoints usually have round neck. Sleeveless shirt is fitted and attached under the wrist. Around the year 1350, the pourpoint shirt was usually worn out and was usually worn with a belt. T-shirts appearing in the second half of this century are shorter, only to the hips. Some shirts have long sleeves over their wrists, reaching their knuckles.

Socks always cover your feet. Short socks with soles are worn instead of shoes. Stockings cut short with the straps under the instep are worn with shoes or boots.

When worn outside the pourpoint, the surcote hugging the body, the shorts and possibly the arms or not.

Other influences of military costume on civilian clothing include the acceptance of loose sleeves assembled into the body of the garment instead of the tunic's sleeves.

-The cote-hardie is a variant of a surcote shirt or tunic jacket. In France, cote-hardies are usually hand-woven shirts worn on the street, used by the lower classes first and then become more elegant and often fringed or decorated with fur. British cote-hardies are often worn on the waist, where they are attached, and then they spread out like a front open gown and are usually long to the knees. The front of the shirt is elongated, while it extends back into a short blade. The British wear a cote-hardie with a low waist, right hip. And the lower classes were more weary, not knit, but in lingerie.

-In the second half of the 14th century, buttons were stretched from neck to back, rather than from neck to waist. The strings behind the sleeves become longer and narrower. The length of the shirt becomes shorter. The sweatshirt and the back straps are often decorated with daggers, a kind of decoration in which the shirt is cut into sharp or square pieces.

-Apparel houppelande formerly outfit to wear home of man, are worn outside the shirt pourpoint, apparel generally tight across the shoulders, and wide downwards, folded tubular or pleated, and is fixed by a rope harness. This type of costume is composed of four long cloth sewn together at each edge, between the front and back.Worn in the beginning and sometimes the seam is to open a short distance at the bottom of the shirt to form slit. These shirts are usually short to thigh or longer to wear for the big occasion. These gowns to between knee and ankle appeared in the 15th century and called houppelande a mi-jamb.

Hair and jewelry for hair

The hair is cut short, just under the ears. The face is always shaved.

In the first half of the 14th century, there were some changes in the fashion of hoods, hooded sweatshirts or brimmed hats with hats. In the second half of the century, hat designs became more diverse and funnier.

Shoe

-Low-level men often wear long socks on their knees or under their calves. Long socks often have a contrasting color to the outfit or are mixed with a different color on each leg.

Shoes can cover the entire leg or shorter, usually with a cord wrapped around the ankle. Shoe length is longer.

-Poulaine or crackie shoes, a particularly long and pointed nose shoes, used until the end of the century. Although the nose of all shoes in this period is usually pointed, only aristocrats and wealthy people can afford the long and sharp ones. Cracki shoes are one of them; It represents the personality of a man who does not have many limbs in his life.

High boots from the ankle to the mid-calf, or long to the thigh for horseback riding, wide boots and hugging are all used. Working-class men often wear clogs when the streets are muddy by the weather.

Accessories

In addition to belts that are often worn with cote-hardies, some other belts have daggers or pockets to add value. Every class wears gloves, and is often cut down.

WOMEN SITES XIV CENTURY

Clothes

Changes in the costume of the first half of the 14th century were mostly limited to changing the width of the dresses so that they hugged the body further in the upper body and spread out in the lower body.

The surcote is sewn up and worn outside the dress. These shirts are cut according to the curve of the body. From the second half of the century the traditional dresses of the French royal women began to flourish.

Dress - Slim fit body and with long sleeves, tight.

Surcote - no ribs with deep neck, clearly visible strings running across the shoulders. A hard-edged, round-bottomed plaque (often called a placard in English) is extended to the hips and then attached to the waist band around the hip where it connects to the leg portion of the skirt.

Legs of the skirt - very long and when to go must be lifted.

A row of decorative needles are placed in front of the bib.

Applyed after 1387, houppelande women's shirts developed in the 15th century. British cote-hardie shirts for women with deep neckline and long sleeves to the elbow.

Royal women wear solemn coats in ceremonial ceremonies. Jackets can be left open or hooked by hooks, and are worn with matching dresses. Coats, jackets are usually worn to keep warm. Fur coats worn during the winter, although the restriction policy usually stipulates the type of coat used to trim or decorate the garment according to the social status of the wearer.

Hair and jewelry for hair

Hairstyles and caps are generally wider than tall. Adult women's hair is hidden under the veil or wrapped inside a hairdo. If the head is to the ceiling, the hair must be braided, or roll around the ear or tail to match the length of the face.

Barbettes and fillets used throughout the early part of the century are gradually disappearing. Wimples continue to be used but longer, but until the end of the century they were used only for widows and church members. Narrow fillets are often worn outside the net.

The veil, usually fixed by a fillet or chaplet, is not as veiled as centuries ago. Metallic fillet for royal women turns into small crowns and becomes an indispensable piece of jewelry for all kinds of veils.

With surcote suits for formal occasions, royal women curls in hair-covered webs over their ears, crowns or fillets on the net.

Hats and caps are often used in bad weather.

Shoe

Socks are usually long to the knees and fixed. Although women's shoes are similar to men's shoes, women's shoes are never too long.

Gloves

Women wear gloves.

Jewelry

Common types of jewelry include necklaces, bracelets, earrings, rings, brooches, jeweled harnesses and buttons, hooks for coats.

Cosmetics and beauty

By the end of the 13th century, it would be fashionable to have high, wide foreheads and this was achieved by removing all the hair on the forehead. The eyebrows are also sprung. Although not very common, the hair dye, especially the hair dye, as well as the "drawing face" is also sometimes recorded.

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